oracle备份和还原学习小结

oracle对数据的备份和还原提供了两种模式,一种是用户管理的备份和还原,另一种是利用rman进行备份和还原。

1.用户管理
  1.1 用户管理的备份
      1.1.1 关闭数据库的备份(整体冷备)
            条件:允许停机
            备份内容:所有的数据文件(v$datafile.name)、所有控制文件(v$controlfile.name)、所有redolog(v$logfile.member)
            注意点:一般用于noarch模式
            步骤:a.shutdown immediate
                  b.host cp [datafile & controlfile &redolog] /backup_path
                  c.startup
            范例:sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> archive log list                                                                             
                  Database log mode              No Archive Mode                                                                           
                  Automatic archival             Enabled                                                                                   
                  Archive destination            D:\oracle\arch\oralocal_optional                                                          
                  Oldest online log sequence     35                                                                                        
                  Current log sequence           37                                                                                        
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> shutdown immediate                                                                           
                  Database closed.                                                                                                         
                  Database dismounted.                                                                                                     
                  ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                               
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> host cp D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal\*.* H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_noarch_shutdown_imme_20070610
                                                                                                                                           
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> startup                                                                                      
                  ORACLE instance started.                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                           
                  Total System Global Area  133765984 bytes                                                                                
                  Fixed Size                   453472 bytes                                                                                
                  Variable Size              79691776 bytes                                                                                
                  Database Buffers           50331648 bytes                                                                                
                  Redo Buffers                3289088 bytes                                                                                
                  Database mounted.                                                                                                        
                  Database opened.                                                                                                                                                                                             
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)>                                                                                                                                                      
                  
                  
      1.1.2 联机状态的备份(基于表空间的在线备份)
            条件:不允许停机。
            备份内容:数据文件(v$datafile.name)、控制文件(v$controlfile.name)
            注意点:a.只用于archive模式。
                    b.当处于backup模式时,redolog会变大,因为本来需要写入到db file中的块现在写到redolog中,完成备份后,记得要解除backup模式。            
                    c.为防止redolog增加过快,建议将一个表空间处于backup模式,完成备份,解除backup模式,再备份下一个表空间。
                    d.尽量保证最近一次备份到现在的archive日志存在。若有,在恢复时可实现完全恢复;若无,在恢复时实现不完全恢复。
                    e.只读表空间在恢复时需注意备份对应的控制文件。因为对于只读表空间,在控制文件中会记录类似:
                      # Files in read-only tablespaces are now named.  
                      ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE 'MISSING00008'        
                        TO 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_INDX_01.DBF';
                      # Online the files in read-only tablespaces.     
                      ALTER TABLESPACE "TS_INDX_01" ONLINE;            
            步骤:a.alter tablespace tablespace_name_1 begin backup;
                  b.host cp tablespace_name_1 /backup_path
                  c.alter tablespace tablespace_name_1 end backup;
                  d.alter system archive log current;
                  e.alter database backup controlfile to '/backup_path/controlfile.ctl';
            范例:sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> archive log list                                                                                   
                  Database log mode              Archive Mode                                                                                    
                  Automatic archival             Enabled                                                                                         
                  Archive destination            D:\oracle\arch\oralocal_optional                                                                
                  Oldest online log sequence     36                                                                                              
                  Next log sequence to archive   38                                                                                              
                  Current log sequence           38                                                                                              
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> select TABLESPACE_NAME,STATUS from dba_tablespaces;                                                
                                                                                                                                           
                  TABLESPACE_NAME                STATUS                                                                                          
                  ------------------------------ ---------                                                                                       
                  SYSTEM                         ONLINE                                                                                          
                  TEMP                           ONLINE                                                                                          
                  CWMLITE                        ONLINE                                                                                          
                  DRSYS                          ONLINE                                                                                          
                  EXAMPLE                        ONLINE                                                                                          
                  ODM                            ONLINE                                                                                          
                  XDB                            ONLINE                                                                                          
                  PERFSTAT                       ONLINE                                                                                          
                  TS_DATA_USER01                 ONLINE                                                                                          
                  TS_UNDO_01                     ONLINE                                                                                          
                  TS_RMAN_01                     ONLINE                                                                                          
                  TS_INDX_01                     READ ONLY                                                                                       
                  TS_UNDO_TEMP                   ONLINE                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                           
                  13 rows selected.                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                           
                  Elapsed: 00:00:01.03                                                                                                           
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter tablespace SYSTEM begin backup;                                                              
                                                                                                                                           
                  Tablespace altered.                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                           
                  Elapsed: 00:00:00.03                                                                                                           
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> host cp D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\SYSTEM01.DBF H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_arch_online_20070610      
                                                                                                                                           
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter tablespace SYSTEM end backup;                                                                
                                                                                                                                           
                  Tablespace altered.                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                           
                  Elapsed: 00:00:00.09                                                                                                           
                  ……(部分省略)
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter tablespace TS_RMAN_01 begin backup;                                                          
                                                                                                                                                 
                  Tablespace altered.                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                 
                  Elapsed: 00:00:00.02                                                                                                           
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> host cp D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_RMAN_01.DBF H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_arch_online_20070610    
                                                                                                                                                 
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter tablespace TS_RMAN_01 end backup;                                                            
                                                                                                                                                 
                  Tablespace altered.                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                 
                  Elapsed: 00:00:00.02                                                                                                           
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter tablespace TS_INDX_01 begin backup;                                                          
                  alter tablespace TS_INDX_01 begin backup                                                                                       
                  *                                                                                                                              
                  ERROR at line 1:                                                                                                               
                  ORA-01642: begin backup not needed for read only tablespace 'TS_INDX_01'                                                       
                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                 
                  Elapsed: 00:00:00.04                                                                                                           
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> host cp D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_INDX_01.DBF H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_arch_online_20070610    
                                                                                                                                                 
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter tablespace TS_UNDO_TEMP begin backup;                                                        
                                                                                                                                                 
                  Tablespace altered.                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                 
                  Elapsed: 00:00:00.03                                                                                                           
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> host cp D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_02.DBF H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_arch_online_20070610    
                                                                                                                                                 
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter tablespace TS_UNDO_TEMP end backup;                                                          
                                                                                                                                                 
                  Tablespace altered.                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                 
                  Elapsed: 00:00:00.03                                                                                                           
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter system archive log current;   
                                                                               
                  System altered.                                              
                                                                               
                  Elapsed: 00:00:03.00                                         
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter database backup controlfile to 'H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_arch_online_20070610\controlfile.ctl';   
                                                                                                                                                   
                  Database altered.                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                   
                  Elapsed: 00:00:01.04                                                                                                             
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)>                                                                                                      
                  
                  
                                                 
                                                                                                              
                  
                  
                  
                  
  1.2 用户管理的还原
      还原的准则:必须先考虑完全恢复,再考虑不完全恢复
    1.2.1 完全恢复
          条件:有备份以来的所有arch日志,redolog正常,有表空间的冷备文件或者有该表空间创建以来的所有arch文件
          注意:不需还原控制文件,redolog和密码文件
          步骤:
          (情况1)有表空间的冷备文件,丢失数据文件
              a.startup;(此时遇到报错)
              b.alter database datafile wrong_datafile_name offline;
              c.alter database open;
              d.host cp back_datafile_name wrong_datafile_name;
              e.recover datafile wrong_datafile_name;
              f.alter database datafile wrong_datafile_name online;
           范例: sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.100.24)> shutdown abort                                                                                                  
                 ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                                                 
                 sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.100.24)> host                                                                                                            
                 Microsoft Windows XP [版本 5.1.2600]                                                                                                       
                 (C) 版权所有 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                      
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                              
                 CONTROL01.CTL       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_01.DBF     
                 CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      TS_UNDO_02.DBF     
                 CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_RMAN_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF          
                 CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_TEST01.DBF                          
                                                                                                                                                      
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>mv EXAMPLE01.DBF EXAMPLE01.DBF.bak                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                      
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>exit                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                      
                 sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.100.24)> startup                                                                                                         
                 ORACLE instance started.                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                      
                 Total System Global Area  133765984 bytes                                                                                                  
                 Fixed Size                   453472 bytes                                                                                                  
                 Variable Size              79691776 bytes                                                                                                  
                 Database Buffers           50331648 bytes                                                                                                  
                 Redo Buffers                3289088 bytes                                                                                                  
                 Database mounted.                                                                                                                          
                 ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 5 - see DBWR trace file                                                                          
                 ORA-01110: data file 5: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\EXAMPLE01.DBF'                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                      
                 sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.100.24)> alter database datafile 5 offline;                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                      
                 Database altered.                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                      
                 Elapsed: 00:00:00.03                                                                                                                       
                 sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.100.24)> alter database open;                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                      
                 Database altered.                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                      
                 Elapsed: 00:00:27.06                                                                                                                       
                 sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.100.24)> host                                                                                                            
                 Microsoft Windows XP [版本 5.1.2600]                                                                                                       
                 (C) 版权所有 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                      
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>cp H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_noarch_shutdown_imme_20070620\EXAMPLE01.DBF D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\EXAMPLE01.DBF
                                                                                                                                                      
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>exit                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                      
                 sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.100.24)> recover datafile 5;                                                                                             
                 ORA-00279: change 1120850981792 generated at 06/20/2007 21:33:10 needed for thread 1                                                       
                 ORA-00289: suggestion : D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00041.001                                                                               
                 ORA-00280: change 1120850981792 for thread 1 is in sequence #41                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                      
                 Specify log: {=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}                                                                                  
                 AUTO                                                                                                                                       
                 ORA-00279: change 1120850981793 generated at 06/20/2007 21:33:10 needed for thread 1                                                       
                 ORA-00289: suggestion : D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00042.001                                                                               
                 ORA-00280: change 1120850981793 for thread 1 is in sequence #42                                                                            
                 ORA-00278: log file 'D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00041.001' no longer needed for this recovery                                              
                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                        
                 ORA-00279: change 1120851004139 generated at 06/20/2007 22:42:32 needed for thread 1                                                         
                 ORA-00289: suggestion : D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00043.001                                                                                 
                 ORA-00280: change 1120851004139 for thread 1 is in sequence #43                                                                              
                 ORA-00278: log file 'D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00042.001' no longer needed for this recovery                                                
                                                                                                                                                             
                  ……(部分省略)                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                 ORA-00279: change 1120851210863 generated at 06/21/2007 08:51:40 needed for thread 1                                                         
                 ORA-00289: suggestion : D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00056.001                                                                                 
                 ORA-00280: change 1120851210863 for thread 1 is in sequence #56                                                                              
                 ORA-00278: log file 'D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00055.001' no longer needed for this recovery                                                
                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                              
                 Log applied.                                                                                                                                 
                 Media recovery complete.                                                                                                                     
                 sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.100.24)> alter database datafile 5 online;                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                              
                 Database altered.                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                              
                 Elapsed: 00:00:02.06                                                                                                                        
       
                  
               (情况2)没有冷备表空间,但是有表空间的建立以来的所有arch,丢失数据文件
                      a.startup;(此时遇到报错) 
                      b.alter database datafile wrong_datafile_name offline;
                      c.alter database open;
                      d.alter database create datafile 'XXXXXXXX';
                      e. recover datafile wrong_datafile_name;                
                      f.alter database datafile wrong_datafile_name online;
                范例:sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)> shutdown abort                                                                                              
                      ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                                            
                      sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)> host                                                                                                        
                      Microsoft Windows XP [版本 5.1.2600]                                                                                                  
                      (C) 版权所有 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                      C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>cd D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                      
                      C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>d:                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                      
                      D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                      CONTROL01.CTL       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_01.DBF
                      CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      TS_UNDO_02.DBF
                      CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_RMAN_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF     
                      CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_TEST01.DBF                     
                                                                                                                                                      
                      D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>mv TS_TEST01.DBF TS_TEST01.DBF.bak                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                      
                      D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                      CONTROL01.CTL       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_01.DBF
                      CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      TS_UNDO_02.DBF
                      CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_RMAN_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF     
                      CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_TEST01.DBF.bak                 
                                                                                                                                                      
                      D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>exit                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                      
                      sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)> startup;                                                                                                    
                      ORACLE instance started.                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                      
                      Total System Global Area  133765984 bytes                                                                                             
                      Fixed Size                   453472 bytes                                                                                             
                      Variable Size              79691776 bytes                                                                                             
                      Database Buffers           50331648 bytes                                                                                             
                      Redo Buffers                3289088 bytes                                                                                             
                      Database mounted.                                                                                                                     
                      ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 13 - see DBWR trace file                                                                    
                      ORA-01110: data file 13: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_TEST01.DBF'                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                      
                      sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)> alter database datafile 13 offline;                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                      
                      Database altered.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                      
                      Elapsed: 00:00:00.02                                                                                                                  
                      sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)> alter database open;                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                      
                      Database altered.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                      
                      Elapsed: 00:00:36.09                                                                                                                  
                      sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)> alter database create datafile 'D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal\TS_TEST01.DBF';                                  
                                                                                                                                                      
                      Database altered.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                      
                      Elapsed: 00:00:00.06                                                                                                                  
                      sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)> recover datafile 'D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal\TS_TEST01.DBF';                                                
                      Media recovery complete.                                                                                                              
                      sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)> alter database datafile 'D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal\TS_TEST01.DBF' online;                                  
                                                                                                                                                      
                      Database altered.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                      
                      Elapsed: 00:00:02.02                                                                                                                  
                      sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)>                                                                                                             
                      sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.12)>                                                                                                             
                  
               (情况3)只读表空间的恢复
                      a.startup;(此时遇到报错) 
                      b.host cp back_datafile_name wrong_datafile_name;           
                      c.alter database open;
                 范例:sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> select TABLESPACE_NAME,STATUS from dba_tablespaces;                                   
                                                                                                                                   
                       TABLESPACE_NAME                STATUS                                                                             
                       ------------------------------ ---------                                                                          
                       SYSTEM                         ONLINE                                                                             
                       TEMP                           ONLINE                                                                             
                       CWMLITE                        ONLINE                                                                             
                       DRSYS                          ONLINE                                                                             
                       EXAMPLE                        ONLINE                                                                             
                       ODM                            ONLINE                                                                             
                       XDB                            ONLINE                                                                             
                       PERFSTAT                       ONLINE                                                                             
                       TS_DATA_USER01                 ONLINE                                                                             
                       TS_UNDO_01                     ONLINE                                                                             
                       TS_RMAN_01                     ONLINE                                                                             
                       TS_INDX_01                     READ ONLY                                                                          
                       TS_UNDO_TEMP                   ONLINE                                                                             
                       TS_TEST                        ONLINE                                                                             
                                                                                                                                   
                       14 rows selected.                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                   
                       Elapsed: 00:00:01.01                                                                                              
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> shutdown abort                                                                        
                       ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                        
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> host                                                                                  
                       Microsoft Windows XP [版本 5.1.2600]                                                                              
                       (C) 版权所有 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.                                                                            
                                                                                                                                   
                       C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>d:                                                                        
                                                                                                                                   
                       D:\>cd D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                   
                       D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                     
                       CONTROL01.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF.bak    TS_TEST01.DBF 
                       CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF.bak   REDO0301.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_UNDO_01.DBF
                       CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0302.LOG        REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF
                       CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO101.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF     
                       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO102.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_RMAN_01.DBF                    
                                                                                                                                   
                       D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>mv TS_INDX_01.DBF TS_INDX_01.DBF.bak                                                   
                                                                                                                                   
                       D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>exit                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                   
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> startup                                                                               
                       ORACLE instance started.                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                   
                       Total System Global Area  133765984 bytes                                                                         
                       Fixed Size                   453472 bytes                                                                         
                       Variable Size              79691776 bytes                                                                         
                       Database Buffers           50331648 bytes                                                                         
                       Redo Buffers                3289088 bytes                                                                         
                       Database mounted.                                                                                                 
                       ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 8 - see DBWR trace file                                                 
                       ORA-01110: data file 8: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_INDX_01.DBF'                                               
                                                                                                                                   
                       D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>cp H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_noarch_shutdown_imme_20070620\TS_INDX_01.DBF ./            
                                                                                                                                   
                       D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>exit                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                   
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter database open;                                                                  
                                                                                                                                   
                       Database altered.                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                   
                       Elapsed: 00:00:39.00                                                                                              
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> 
                       
               (情况4)含只读表空间的控制文件丢失,但是有之前的alter database backup controlfile to trace as 'XXXXX'的跟踪备份。
                      a.startup nomount;
                      b.create controlfile ……plus the read only datafile;
                      c.recover read_only_datafile 'XXXXXXX';
                      d.alter database open;
                 范例:sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)>  select tablespace_name,status from dba_tablespaces;                                                      
                                                                                                                                                       
                       TABLESPACE_NAME                STATUS                                                                                                 
                       ------------------------------ ---------                                                                                              
                       SYSTEM                         ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TEMP                           ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       CWMLITE                        ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       DRSYS                          ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       EXAMPLE                        ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       ODM                            ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       XDB                            ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       PERFSTAT                       ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TS_DATA_USER01                 ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TS_UNDO_01                     ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TS_RMAN_01                     READ ONLY                                                                                              
                       TS_INDX_01                     ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TS_UNDO_TEMP                   ONLINE                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                       
                       13 rows selected.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                       
                       Elapsed: 00:00:00.06                                                                                                                  
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> select checkpoint_change# from v$datafile;                                                                
                                                                                                                                                       
                       CHECKPOINT_CHANGE#                                                                                                                    
                       ------------------                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985517                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985598                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                             
                       12 rows selected.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Elapsed: 00:00:01.06                                                                                                                  
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)>                                                                                                           
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)>                                                                                                           
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)>                                                                                                           
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter database  backup controlfile to trace as 'd:\controlfile.txt';                                      
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Database altered.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Elapsed: 00:00:00.03                                                                                                                  
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> shutdown immediate;                                                                                       
                       Database closed.                                                                                                                      
                       Database dismounted.                                                                                                                  
                       ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                                            
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> host                                                                                                      
                       Microsoft Windows XP [版本 5.1.2600]                                                                                                  
                       (C) 版权所有 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                             
                       D:\oracle\ora92\database>ls                                                                                                           
                       INIToralocal.ORA       PWDoralocal.ORA        SPFILEORALOCAL.ORA     oradba.exe             sqlnet.log                                
                       OraDim.Log             SNCFORALOCAL.ORA       archive                oralocalCORE.LOG       复件 INIToralocal.ORA                     
                                                                                                                                                             
                       D:\oracle\ora92\database>cd D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                             
                       D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                       CONTROL01.CTL       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF
                       CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF     
                       CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_RMAN_01.DBF                    
                       CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_UNDO_01.DBF                    
                                                                                                                                                             
                       D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>mv *.CTL ../                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                             
                       D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                       CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_UNDO_01.DBF                    
                       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF                    
                       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF                         
                       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_RMAN_01.DBF                                        
                                                                                                                                                             
                       D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>exit                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                             
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> startup mount;                                                                                            
                       ORACLE instance started.                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Total System Global Area  133765984 bytes                                                                                             
                       Fixed Size                   453472 bytes                                                                                             
                       Variable Size              79691776 bytes                                                                                             
                       Database Buffers           50331648 bytes                                                                                             
                       Redo Buffers                3289088 bytes                                                                                             
                       ORA-00205: error in identifying controlfile, check alert log for more info                                                            
                                                                                                                                                             
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORALOCAL" NORESETLOGS FORCE LOGGING ARCHIVELOG                         
                         2  --  SET STANDBY TO MAXIMIZE AVAILABILITY                                                                                         
                         3      MAXLOGFILES 50                                                                                                               
                         4      MAXLOGMEMBERS 5                                                                                                              
                         5      MAXDATAFILES 100                                                                                                             
                         6      MAXINSTANCES 1                                                                                                               
                         7      MAXLOGHISTORY 226                                                                                                            
                         8  LOGFILE                                                                                                                          
                         9    GROUP 1 (                                                                                                                      
                        10      'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO101.LOG',                                                                                    
                        11      'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO102.LOG'                                                                                     
                        12    ) SIZE 10M,                                                                                                                    
                        13    GROUP 2 (                                                                                                                      
                        14      'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO202.LOG',                                                                                    
                        15      'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO201.LOG'                                                                                     
                        16    ) SIZE 10M,                                                                                                                    
                        17    GROUP 3 (                                                                                                                      
                        18      'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO301.LOG',                                                                                    
                        19      'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO302.LOG'                                                                                     
                        20    ) SIZE 10M                                                                                                                     
                        21  DATAFILE                                                                                                                         
                        22    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\SYSTEM01.DBF',                                                                                     
                        23    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_01.DBF',                                                                                   
                        24    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CWMLITE01.DBF',                                                                                    
                        25    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\DRSYS01.DBF',                                                                                      
                        26    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\EXAMPLE01.DBF',                                                                                    
                        27    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_02.DBF',                                                                                   
                        28    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\ODM01.DBF',                                                                                        
                        29    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_INDX_01.DBF',                                                                                   
                        30    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\XDB01.DBF',                                                                                        
                        31    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\PERFSTAT.DBF',                                                                                     
                        32    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_DATA_USER01.DBF',                                                                               
                        33    'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_RMAN_01.DBF'  <------重建控制文件的时候,注意把之前的只读表空间也加进去                         
                        34  CHARACTER SET ZHS16GBK                                                                                                           
                        35  ;                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Control file created.                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Elapsed: 00:00:02.02                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                             
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter database open;                                                                                      
                       alter database open                                                                                                                   
                       *                                                                                                                                     
                       ERROR at line 1:                                                                                                                      
                       ORA-01113: file 9 needs media recovery                                                                                                
                       ORA-01110: data file 9: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_RMAN_01.DBF'                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Elapsed: 00:00:00.07                                                                                                                  
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> recover datafile 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_RMAN_01.DBF';                                             
                       Media recovery complete.                                                                                                              
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter database open;                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Database altered.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Elapsed: 00:00:24.07                                                                                                                  
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> select tablespace_name,status from dba_tablespaces;                                                       
                                                                                                                                                             
                       TABLESPACE_NAME                STATUS                                                                                                 
                       ------------------------------ ---------                                                                                              
                       SYSTEM                         ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TEMP                           ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       CWMLITE                        ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       DRSYS                          ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       EXAMPLE                        ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       ODM                            ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       XDB                            ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       PERFSTAT                       ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TS_DATA_USER01                 ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TS_UNDO_01                     ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TS_RMAN_01                     READ ONLY                                                                                              
                       TS_INDX_01                     ONLINE                                                                                                 
                       TS_UNDO_TEMP                   ONLINE                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                             
                       13 rows selected.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Elapsed: 00:00:00.08                                                                                                                  
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> select checkpoint_change# from v$datafile;                                                                
                                                                                                                                                             
                       CHECKPOINT_CHANGE#                                                                                                                    
                       ------------------                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985517                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                            1120850985856                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                             
                       12 rows selected.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                             
                       Elapsed: 00:00:01.08                                                                                                                  
                       sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)>                                                                                                           
                       
                       
                                                                                                            
                       
    1.2.2 不完全恢复   
          条件:(1)若是noarch模式,且redolog已经被覆盖利用,拥有之前所有的数据文件,控制文件,redolog。
          步骤:shutdown immediate之后用冷备覆盖     
          条件:(2)若是noarch模式,且redolog已经被覆盖利用,丢失备份时候的redolog(或者当时没有考虑将redolog也进行备份),但有当前的redolog,存在备份的控制文件和备份的数据文件
          步骤:a.shutdown immediate;
                b.cp backup_datafile  data_path
                  cp backup_controlfile controlfile_path
                c.recover database using backup controlfile until cancel;
                  cancel;
                d.alter database open resetlogs;
          注意点:如果数据库是shutdown abort的,丢失备份时候的redolog和当前的redolog,将不能恢复。
                  如果数据库是shutdown immediate的,丢失备份时候的redolog和当前的redolog,将可以恢复。
            范例:sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> shutdown immediate;                                                                                           
                  Database closed.                                                                                                                         
                  Database dismounted.                                                                                                                     
                  ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                                               
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> host                                                                                                         
                  Microsoft Windows XP [版本 5.1.2600]                                                                                                     
                  (C) 版权所有 1985-2001 Microsoft Corp.                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                     
                  C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>d:                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                     
                  D:\>cd D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                     
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                            
                  CONTROL01.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF.bak    TS_RMAN_01.DBF                       
                  CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF.bak   REDO0301.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_TEST01.DBF                        
                  CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0302.LOG        REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_01.DBF                       
                  CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO101.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      TS_UNDO_02.DBF                       
                  DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO102.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_INDX_01.DBF.bak  XDB01.DBF                            
                                                                                                                                                     
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rm *.DBF                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                     
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rm *.CTL                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                     
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rm *.bak                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                     
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                            
                  REDO0201.LOG  REDO0202.LOG  REDO0301.LOG  REDO0302.LOG  REDO101.LOG   REDO102.LOG   REDO201.LOG   REDO202.LOG   REDO301.LOG   REDO302.LOG
                                                                                                                                                     
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>cp H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_noarch_shutdown_imme_20070620\*.DBF ./                                            
                                                                                                                                                     
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>cp H:\oralocal_backup\os_cp_noarch_shutdown_imme_20070620\*.CTL ./                                            
                                                                                                                                                     
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>exit                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                     
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> startup                                                                                                      
                  ORACLE instance started.                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                     
                  Total System Global Area  133765984 bytes                                                                                                
                  Fixed Size                   453472 bytes                                                                                                
                  Variable Size              79691776 bytes                                                                                                
                  Database Buffers           50331648 bytes                                                                                                
                  Redo Buffers                3289088 bytes                                                                                                
                  Database mounted.                                                                                                                        
                  ORA-00314: log 1 of thread 1, expected sequence#  doesn't match                                                                          
                  ORA-00312: online log 1 thread 1: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO101.LOG'                                                               
                  ORA-00312: online log 1 thread 1: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO102.LOG'                                                               
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> recover database using backup controlfile until cancel;                                                      
                  ORA-00279: change 1120850981792 generated at 06/20/2007 21:33:10 needed for thread 1                                                     
                  ORA-00289: suggestion : D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00041.001                                                                             
                  ORA-00280: change 1120850981792 for thread 1 is in sequence #41                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                  Specify log: {=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}                                                                                
                  cancel                                                                                                                                   
                  Media recovery cancelled.                                                                                                                
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter database open;                                                                                         
                  alter database open                                                                                                                      
                  *                                                                                                                                        
                  ERROR at line 1:                                                                                                                         
                  ORA-01589: must use RESETLOGS or NORESETLOGS option for database open                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                          
                  Elapsed: 00:00:00.09                                                                                                                     
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)> alter database open resetlogs;                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                          
                  Database altered.                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                          
                  Elapsed: 00:00:31.04                                                                                                                          
                  sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.22)>                                                                                                                   
                       
                       
                       
2.rman管理                  
  2.1 rman管理的备份
    2.1.1 一般的backup命令
     2.1.1.1 基本命令:
          run{
          allocate channel t1 type disk maxpiecesize 512M;                    --------分配通道1,并且设置每个备份片最大的大小
          allocate channel t2 type disk maxpiecesize 512M;                    --------分配通道2,并且设置每个备份片最大的大小
          allocate channel t3 type disk maxpiecesize 512M;                    --------分配通道3,并且设置每个备份片最大的大小
          backup database                                                     --------备份数据库
          format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\db_full_%u_%p_%s.RMN'             --------备份片的输出名称的格式,%u:8位,备份集号+备份时间;%p:备份片数;%s:备份集数
          filesperset 5                                                       --------到备份集的数据文件数量=min((dba_data_files.count(*)/allocate_channel_num),[&FILESPERSET|64])
          tag 'db_full_070628'                                                --------标签
          skip inaccessible                                                   --------排除因IO无法读取数据文件或arch文件
          include current controlfile;                                        --------同时备份当前控制文件(其实,如果备份了system表空间,该文件也会被备份)
          backup archivelog all                                               --------备份所有archive日志
          format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\arch_full_%u_%p_%s.RMN'           --------设置archive日志备份片的输出名称格式
          tag 'arch_full_070628'                                              --------设置arch的标签
          delete input;                                                       --------备份完成后删除archive日志
          }
    2.1.1.2 备份内容:数据文件
                      控制文件
                      参数文件
                      归档日志
    2.1.1.3 范例:RMAN> run{                                                                                       
                2> allocate channel t1 type disk maxpiecesize 512M;                                  
                3> allocate channel t2 type disk maxpiecesize 512M;                              
                4> allocate channel t3 type disk maxpiecesize 512M;                                             
                5> backup database                                                                      
                6> format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\db_full_%u_%p_%s.RMN'                              
                7> filesperset 5                                                                        
                8> tag 'db_full_070628'                                                                     
                9> skip inaccessible                                                                    
                10> include current controlfile;                                                        
                11> backup archivelog all                                                               
                12> format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\arch_full_%u_%p_%s.RMN'                           
                13> tag 'arch_full_070628'                                                                  
                14> delete input;                                                                       
                15> }                                                                                   
                                                                                                        
                释放的通道: ORA_DISK_1                                                                  
                释放的通道: ORA_DISK_2                                                                  
                分配的通道: t1                                                                          
                通道 t1: sid=17 devtype=DISK                                                            
                                                                                                        
                分配的通道: t2                                                                          
                通道 t2: sid=18 devtype=DISK                                                            
                                                                                                        
                分配的通道: t3                                                                          
                通道 t3: sid=20 devtype=DISK                                                            
                                                                                                        
                启动 backup 于 25-6月 -07                                                               
                通道 t1: 正在启动 full 数据文件备份集                                                   
                通道 t1: 正在指定备份集中的数据文件                                                     
                备份集中包括当前控制文件                                                                
                输入数据文件 fno=00001 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\SYSTEM01.DBF                     
                输入数据文件 fno=00011 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\PERFSTAT.DBF                     
                输入数据文件 fno=00003 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CWMLITE01.DBF                    
                输入数据文件 fno=00007 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\ODM01.DBF                        
                通道 t1: 正在启动段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                                     
                通道 t2: 正在启动 full 数据文件备份集                                                   
                通道 t2: 正在指定备份集中的数据文件                                                     
                输入数据文件 fno=00002 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_01.DBF                   
                输入数据文件 fno=00006 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_02.DBF                   
                输入数据文件 fno=00009 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_RMAN_01.DBF                   
                输入数据文件 fno=00004 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\DRSYS01.DBF                      
                通道 t2: 正在启动段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                                     
                通道 t3: 正在启动 full 数据文件备份集                                              
                通道 t3: 正在指定备份集中的数据文件                                                
                输入数据文件 fno=00012 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_DATA_USER01.DBF          
                输入数据文件 fno=00005 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\EXAMPLE01.DBF               
                输入数据文件 fno=00008 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_INDX_01.DBF              
                输入数据文件 fno=00010 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\XDB01.DBF                   
                通道 t3: 正在启动段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                                
                通道 t1: 已完成段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                                  
                段 handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_0HIL6IAE_1_17.RMN comment=NONE         
                通道 t1: 备份集已完成, 经过时间:00:03:43                                           
                通道 t2: 已完成段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                                
                段 handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_0IIL6IAG_1_18.RMN comment=NONE       
                通道 t2: 备份集已完成, 经过时间:00:04:16                                         
                通道 t3: 已完成段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                                
                段 handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_0JIL6IAK_1_19.RMN comment=NONE       
                通道 t3: 备份集已完成, 经过时间:00:08:02                                         
                完成 backup 于 25-6月 -07                                                        
                                                                                 
                启动 backup 于 25-6月 -07                                                        
                当前日志已存档                                                                   
                通道 t1: 正在启动存档日志备份集                                                  
                通道 t1: 正在指定备份集中的存档日志                                              
                输入存档日志线程 =1 序列 =19 记录 ID=33 时间戳=626213788                         
                通道 t1: 正在启动段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                              
                通道 t2: 正在启动存档日志备份集                                                  
                通道 t2: 正在指定备份集中的存档日志                                              
                输入存档日志线程 =1 序列 =20 记录 ID=34 时间戳=626215212                         
                通道 t2: 正在启动段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                              
                通道 t3: 正在启动存档日志备份集                                                  
                通道 t3: 正在指定备份集中的存档日志                                              
                输入存档日志线程 =1 序列 =21 记录 ID=35 时间戳=626215743                         
                通道 t3: 正在启动段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                              
                通道 t1: 已完成段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                                
                段 handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\ARCH_FULL_0KIL6IPV_1_20.RMN comment=NONE     
                通道 t1: 备份集已完成, 经过时间:00:00:05                                         
                通道 t1: 正在删除存档日志                                                        
                存档日志文件名 =D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00019.001 记录 ID=33 时间戳 =626213788
                通道 t2: 已完成段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                                
                段 handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\ARCH_FULL_0LIL6IPV_1_21.RMN comment=NONE     
                通道 t2: 备份集已完成, 经过时间:00:00:06                                         
                通道 t2: 正在删除存档日志                                                        
                存档日志文件名 =D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00020.001 记录 ID=34 时间戳 =626215212
                通道 t3: 已完成段 1 于 25-6月 -07                                                
                段 handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\ARCH_FULL_0MIL6IPV_1_22.RMN comment=NONE     
                通道 t3: 备份集已完成, 经过时间:00:00:06                                         
                通道 t3: 正在删除存档日志                                                        
                存档日志文件名 =D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00021.001 记录 ID=35 时间戳 =626215743
                完成 backup 于 25-6月 -07                                                        
                                                                                 
                启动 Control File and SPFILE Autobackup 于 25-6月 -07                            
                段 handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070625-02_CTL.RMN comment=NONE
                完成 Control File and SPFILE Autobackup 于 25-6月 -07                            
                释放的通道: t1                                                                   
                释放的通道: t2                                                                   
                释放的通道: t3      
                
                RMAN>
    
    2.1.2 多重备份
     2.1.2.1 基本命令 :
             backup copies 4 datafile 3                                     ------用backup copies命令,同时最多4个相同的文件。
             format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\bk_df_3_cp1_%u.RMN',
             'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\bk_df_3_cp2_%u.RMN',
             'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\bk_df_3_cp3_%u.RMN',
             'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\bk_df_3_cp4_%u.RMN';
     2.1.2.2 备份内容:
             可以备份数据文件、表空间、arch日志、控制文件
     2.1.2.3 范例:RMAN> backup copies 2 tablespace DRSYS                                                      
                   2> format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\bk_ts_3_cp1_%u.RMN',                           
                   3> 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\bk_ts_3_cp2_%u.RMN';                                                                                        
                                                                                    
                   Starting backup at 26-JUN-07                                                        
                   using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                            
                   using channel ORA_DISK_2                                                            
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset                                
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset                             
                   input datafile fno=00004 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\DRSYS01.DBF                
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 26-JUN-07                                   
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 26-JUN-07 with 2 copies                     
                   piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\BK_TS_3_CP1_0OIL6U38.RMN comment=NONE        
                   piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\BK_TS_3_CP2_0OIL6U38.RMN comment=NONE        
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:09                     
                   Finished backup at 26-JUN-07                                                        
                                                                                    
                   Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUN-07                            
                   piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070626-00_CTL.RMN comment=NONE
                   Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUN-07  
    
    2.1.3 备份集的备份
     2.1.3.1 基本命令:
             backup backupset backupset_integer format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\bk_bkset_070628.RMN';
     2.1.3.2 备份内容:
             已经存在的备份集
     2.1.3.3 范例:RMAN> list backupset summary;                                                                       
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                    
                   List of Backups                                                                     
                   ===============                                                                     
                   Key     TY LV S Device Type Completion Time #Pieces #Copies Tag                     
                   ------- -- -- - ----------- --------------- ------- ------- ---                     
                   23      B  F  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       2       TAG20070626T000143      
                   24      B  F  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1                               
                   25      B  A  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       2       TAG20070626T000557      
                   26      B  A  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       2       TAG20070626T000557      
                   27      B  F  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1                               
                   28      B  F  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       2       TAG20070626T000832      
                   29      B  F  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1                               
                   30      B  F  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1       DB_FULL_070628          
                   31      B  F  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1       DB_FULL_070628          
                   32      B  F  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1       DB_FULL_070628          
                   33      B  A  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1       ARCH_FULL_070628        
                   34      B  A  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1       ARCH_FULL_070628        
                   35      B  A  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1       ARCH_FULL_070628        
                   36      B  F  A DISK        26-JUN-07       1       1                               
                                                                                    
                   RMAN> backup backupset 36 format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\bk_bkset_070628.RMN';   
                                                                                    
                   Starting backup at 26-JUN-07                                                        
                   allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1                                                       
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=18 devtype=DISK                                             
                   allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2                                                       
                   channel ORA_DISK_2: sid=17 devtype=DISK                                             
                   input backupset count=37 stamp=626228397 creation_time=26-JUN-07                    
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 26-JUN-07                                   
                   piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\BK_BKSET_070628.RMN comment=NONE             
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 26-JUN-07                                   
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01                     
                   Finished backup at 26-JUN-07                                                        
                                                                                    
                   Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUN-07                            
                   piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070626-04_CTL.RMN comment=NONE
                   Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUN-07                            
                                                                                    
                   RMAN>
                   
    2.1.4 差异增量备份:
     2.1.4.1 基本命令:
             backup  incremental level 2 datafile 3 
             format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\BK_DF_3_INC_L2.RMN'
             tag 'bk_df_3_inc_l2';                                                     ---------如果没有0级备份,自动0级备份。           
     2.1.4.2 备份内容:可备份db、数据文件、表空间、(控制文件和arch理论上不可增量备份,但是备份时不报错)
     2.1.4.3 范例:RMAN> backup  incremental level 2 datafile 3                                        
                   2> format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\BK_DF_3_INC_L2.RMN'                            
                   3> tag 'bk_df_3_inc_l2';                                                            
                                                                                         
                   Starting backup at 26-JUN-07                                                        
                   using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                            
                   using channel ORA_DISK_2                                                            
                   no parent backup or copy of datafile 3 found                                        
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: starting incremental level 2 datafile backupset                 
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset                             
                   input datafile fno=00003 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CWMLITE01.DBF              
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 26-JUN-07                                   
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 26-JUN-07                                   
                   piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\BK_DF_3_INC_L2.RMN comment=NONE              
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03                     
                   Finished backup at 26-JUN-07                                                        
                                                                                         
                   Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUN-07                            
                   piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070626-07_CTL.RMN comment=NONE
                   Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 26-JUN-07                            
                                                                                         
                   RMAN>                                                                               
     
     2.1.5 累积增量备份
      2.1.5.1 基本命令
              backup incremental level 2 cumulative tablespace 'CWMLITE'
              format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\BK_TS_3_INC_L2_CUM.RMN'
              tag 'bk_ts_3_inc_l2_cum';
      2.1.5.2 备份内容:可备份db、表空间、数据文件
      2.1.5.3 范例:RMAN> backup incremental level 2 cumulative tablespace 'CWMLITE'                    
                    2> format 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\BK_TS_3_INC_L2_CUM.RMN'                        
                    3> tag 'bk_ts_3_inc_l2_cum';                                                        
                                                                                          
                    Starting backup at 27-JUN-07                                                        
                    using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                            
                    using channel ORA_DISK_2                                                            
                    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting incremental level 2 datafile backupset                 
                    channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset                             
                    input datafile fno=00003 name=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CWMLITE01.DBF              
                    channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 27-JUN-07                                   
                    channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 27-JUN-07                                   
                    piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\BK_TS_3_INC_L2_CUM.RMN comment=NONE          
                    channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:04                     
                    Finished backup at 27-JUN-07                                                        
                                                                                          
                    Starting Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 27-JUN-07                            
                    piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070627-00_CTL.RMN comment=NONE   
                    Finished Control File and SPFILE Autobackup at 27-JUN-07                            
                                                                                                  
                    RMAN>                                                                               
     
     2.1.6 差异增量备份和累计增量备份的区别:
           差异增量:|<----------|                                 
                                 |<-----|
                     |<-----------------------|            
                                              |<-----|
                                                     |<----|
                                                           |<-----|
                     |<--------------------------------------------------|                                      
                     0级备份     2      2     1      2     2      2      0
                     ----------------------------------------------------->时间轴  
                     星期7       1      2     3      4     5      6      7
           
                还原的时候,差异增量备份必须将每一级的差异增量备份进行还原,如:
                周7和周1之间crash:0级备份+arch        
                周1和周2之间crash:0级备份+2级备份+arch
                周2和周3之间crash:0级备份+2级备份+2级备份+arch
                周3和周4之间crash:0级备份+1级备份+arch
                周4和周5之间crash:0级备份+1级备份+2级备份+arch
                周5和周6之间crash:0级备份+1级备份+2级备份+2级别备份+arch
                周6和周7之间crash:0级备份+1级备份+2级备份+2级别备份+2级备份+arch
              
              
           累积增量:|<----------|                                                 
                     |<-----------------|                                          
                     |<-----------------------|                                    
                                              |<-----|                             
                                              |<-----------|                       
                                              |<------------------|                
                     |<--------------------------------------------------|         
                     0级备份     2      2a    1      2b    2c     2d     0         
                     ----------------------------------------------------->时间轴  
                     星期7       1      2     3      4     5      6      7  
                            
                 还原的时候,累积增量备份不必将每一级的备份进行还原,如:                     
                 周7和周1之间crash:0级备份+arch                                                      
                 周1和周2之间crash:0级备份+2级备份+arch                                           
                 周2和周3之间crash:0级备份+2级备份a+arch                                   
                 周3和周4之间crash:0级备份+1级备份+arch                                           
                 周4和周5之间crash:0级备份+1级备份+2级备份b+arch                                   
                 周5和周6之间crash:0级备份+1级备份+2级备份c+arch                         
                 周6和周7之间crash:0级备份+1级备份+2级备份d+arch                 
                                      
                     
    2.1.7 一般copy命令
     2.1.7.1 基本命令:
             copy datafile 3 to 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\cp_df_3_070629.cpy' check logical;
     2.1.7.2 备份内容:可数据文件、归档日志、控制文件
     2.1.7.3 注意点:只能备份到磁盘,不能备份到磁带。
                     含所有的块
                     会进行校验。可使用参数nochecksum/check logical/maxcorrupt
     2.1.7.4 范例:RMAN> copy datafile 3 to 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\cp_df_3_070629.cpy' check logical;                                                                                                                    
                                                                                      
                   启动 copy 于 29-6月 -07                                                               
                   正在使用目标数据库控制文件替代恢复目录                                                
                   分配的通道: ORA_DISK_1                                                                
                   通道 ORA_DISK_1: sid=17 devtype=DISK                                                  
                   分配的通道: ORA_DISK_2                                                                
                   通道 ORA_DISK_2: sid=18 devtype=DISK                                                  
                   通道 ORA_DISK_1: 已复制数据文件 3                                                     
                   输出文件名=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\CP_DF_3_070629.CPY recid=3 stamp=626487149       
                   完成 copy 于 29-6月 -07                                                               
                                                                                      
                   启动 Control File and SPFILE Autobackup 于 29-6月 -07                                 
                   段 handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070629-00_CTL.RMN comment=NONE     
                   完成 Control File and SPFILE Autobackup 于 29-6月 -07                                 
                                                                                      
                   RMAN>  
                   
                   
  2.2 rman管理的还原:
      还原的准则:必须先考虑完全恢复,再考虑不完全恢复
   2.2.1 完全恢复
    2.2.1.1 情况1:做了完全备份/表空间备份/数据文件备份,有完整的arch日志,有redolog,丢失所有数据文件
    2.2.1.2 步骤:a.startup mount;
                  b.restore database check readonly;         ----------------加上check readonly,将readonly表空间也还原。
                  c.recover database check readonly;
                  d.alter database open;
    2.2.1.3 范例:sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.11)> shutdown abort                                                                                                            
                  ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                                            
                  sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.11)> exit                                                                                                        
                  Disconnected from Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                          
                  With the Partitioning, OLAP and Oracle Data Mining options                                                                            
                  JServer Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                      
                  C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>d:                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                      
                  D:\>cd D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                      
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                  CONTROL01.CTL       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF
                  CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF     
                  CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_RMAN_01.DBF                    
                  CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_UNDO_01.DBF                    
                                                                                                                                      
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rm *.DBF                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                      
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                  CONTROL01.CTL  CONTROL03.CTL  REDO0202.LOG   REDO0302.LOG   REDO102.LOG    REDO202.LOG    REDO302.LOG                                 
                  CONTROL02.CTL  REDO0201.LOG   REDO0301.LOG   REDO101.LOG    REDO201.LOG    REDO301.LOG                                                
                                                                                                                                      
                  D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rman target /                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                      
                  Recovery Manager: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                  Copyright (c) 1995, 2002, Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.                                                                   
                                                                                                                                      
                  connected to target database (not started)                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                      
                  RMAN> startup mount;                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                      
                  Oracle instance started                                                                                                               
                  database mounted                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                  Total System Global Area     133765984 bytes                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                      
                  Fixed Size                      453472 bytes                                                                                          
                  Variable Size                 79691776 bytes                                                                                          
                  Database Buffers              50331648 bytes                                                                                          
                  Redo Buffers                   3289088 bytes                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                      
                  RMAN> restore database check readonly;                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                      
                  Starting restore at 30-JUN-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
                  using target database controlfile instead of recovery catalog                                                                         
                  allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                         
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=13 devtype=DISK                                                                                               
                  allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2                                                                                                         
                  channel ORA_DISK_2: sid=14 devtype=DISK                                                                                               
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00003                                                                                          
                  input datafilecopy recid=3 stamp=626487149 filename=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\CP_DF_3_070629.CPY                                      
                  destination for restore of datafile 00003: D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CWMLITE01.DBF                                                   
                  channel ORA_DISK_2: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                               
                  channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                                 
                  restoring datafile 00001 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\SYSTEM01.DBF                                                                   
                  restoring datafile 00007 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\ODM01.DBF                                                                      
                  restoring datafile 00011 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\PERFSTAT.DBF                                                                   
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: copied datafilecopy of datafile 00003                                                                             
                  output filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CWMLITE01.DBF recid=4 stamp=626573322                                                      
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                               
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                                 
                  restoring datafile 00002 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_01.DBF                                                                 
                  restoring datafile 00004 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\DRSYS01.DBF                                                                    
                  restoring datafile 00006 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_02.DBF                                                                 
                  restoring datafile 00009 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_RMAN_01.DBF                                                                 
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                  piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_10IL6UT8_1_32.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                       
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                                  
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                               
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                                 
                  restoring datafile 00005 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\EXAMPLE01.DBF                                                                  
                  restoring datafile 00008 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_INDX_01.DBF                                                                 
                  restoring datafile 00010 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\XDB01.DBF                                                                      
                  restoring datafile 00012 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_DATA_USER01.DBF                                                             
                  channel ORA_DISK_2: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                  piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_0VIL6UT6_1_31.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                       
                  channel ORA_DISK_2: restore complete                                                                                                  
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                  piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_11IL6UTB_1_33.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                       
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                                  
                  Finished restore at 30-JUN-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                  RMAN> recover database check readonly;                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                      
                  Starting recover at 30-JUN-07                                                                                                         
                  using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                              
                  using channel ORA_DISK_2                                                                                                              
                  datafile 9 not processed because file is read-only                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                      
                  starting media recovery                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 26 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00026.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 27 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00027.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 28 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00028.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 29 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00029.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 30 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00030.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 31 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00031.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 32 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00032.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 33 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00033.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 34 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00034.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 35 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00035.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 36 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00036.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 37 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00037.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 38 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00038.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 39 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00039.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 40 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00040.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 41 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00041.001                                      
                  archive log thread 1 sequence 42 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00042.001                                      
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archive log restore to default destination                                                               
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring archive log                                                                                             
                  archive log thread=1 sequence=25                                                                                                      
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                  piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\ARCH_FULL_14IL6V57_1_36.RMN tag=ARCH_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                   
                  channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                                  
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00025.001 thread=1 sequence=25                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00026.001 thread=1 sequence=26                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00027.001 thread=1 sequence=27                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00028.001 thread=1 sequence=28                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00029.001 thread=1 sequence=29                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00030.001 thread=1 sequence=30                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00031.001 thread=1 sequence=31                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00032.001 thread=1 sequence=32                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00033.001 thread=1 sequence=33                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00034.001 thread=1 sequence=34                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00035.001 thread=1 sequence=35                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00036.001 thread=1 sequence=36                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00037.001 thread=1 sequence=37                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00038.001 thread=1 sequence=38                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00039.001 thread=1 sequence=39                                                        
                  archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00040.001 thread=1 sequence=40                                                        
                  media recovery complete                                                                                                               
                  Finished recover at 30-JUN-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
                  RMAN> alter database open;                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                      
                  database opened                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                      
                  RMAN>                                                                                                                                 

    
     2.2.1.4 情况2:原磁盘路径损坏,需要转移数据文件的路径
     2.2.1.5 步骤:a.startup mount;
                   b.sql "alter database datafile datafile_name offline";
                   c.alter database open;
                   d.run{
                      set newname for databfile datafile_name to 'newpath';              --------------将数据文件转移到别的路径
                      restore datafile datafile_name;
                      switch datafile all;                                               ---------------同步控制文件信息
                      recover datafile datafile_name;
                      }
     2.2.1.6 范例:sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.11)> shutdown abort                                                                                                          
                   ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                                       
                   sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.11)> exit                                                                                                   
                   Disconnected from Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                     
                   With the Partitioning, OLAP and Oracle Data Mining options                                                                       
                   JServer Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                 
                   D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                    
                   CONTROL01.CTL       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF
                   CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_RMAN_01.DBF               
                   CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_UNDO_01.DBF               
                   CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF               
                                                                                                                                 
                   D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rm DRSYS01.DBF                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                 
                   D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                    
                   CONTROL01.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_RMAN_01.DBF               
                   CONTROL02.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_UNDO_01.DBF               
                   CONTROL03.CTL       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF               
                   CWMLITE01.DBF       REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF                    
                                                                                                                                 
                   D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rman target /                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                 
                   Recovery Manager: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                   Copyright (c) 1995, 2002, Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.                                                              
                                                                                                                                 
                   connected to target database (not started)                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                 
                   RMAN> startup mount;                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                 
                   Oracle instance started                                                                                                          
                   database mounted                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                   Total System Global Area     133765984 bytes                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                 
                   Fixed Size                      453472 bytes                                                                                     
                   Variable Size                 79691776 bytes                                                                                     
                   Database Buffers              50331648 bytes                                                                                     
                   Redo Buffers                   3289088 bytes                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                 
                   RMAN> alter database open;                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                 
                   using target database controlfile instead of recovery catalog                                                                    
                   RMAN-00571: ===========================================================                                                          
                   RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============                                                          
                   RMAN-00571: ===========================================================                                                          
                   RMAN-03002: failure of alter db command at 06/30/2007 00:33:47                                                                   
                   ORA-01157: cannot identify/lock data file 4 - see DBWR trace file                                                                
                   ORA-01110: data file 4: 'D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\DRSYS01.DBF'                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                   RMAN> sql "alter database datafile 4 offline";                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                 
                   sql statement: alter database datafile 4 offline                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                   RMAN> alter database open;                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                 
                   database opened                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                 
                   RMAN>                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                 
                   RMAN> run{                                                                                                                       
                   2> set newname for datafile 4 to 'D:\oracle\oradata\datafile4.dbf';                                                              
                   3> restore datafile 4;                                                                                                           
                   4> switch datafile all;                                                                                                          
                   5> recover datafile 4;                                                                                                           
                   6> }                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                 
                   executing command: SET NEWNAME                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                 
                   Starting restore at 30-JUN-07                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                 
                   allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                    
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=13 devtype=DISK                                                                                          
                   allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2                                                                                                    
                   channel ORA_DISK_2: sid=18 devtype=DISK                                                                                          
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                          
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                            
                   restoring datafile 00004 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\DATAFILE4.DBF                                                                      
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1                                                                                      
                   piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_10IL6UT8_1_32.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                  
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                             
                   Finished restore at 30-JUN-07                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                 
                   datafile 4 switched to datafile copy                                                                                             
                   input datafilecopy recid=17 stamp=626575183 filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\DATAFILE4.DBF                                             
                                                                                                                                 
                   Starting recover at 30-JUN-07                                                                                                    
                   using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                         
                   using channel ORA_DISK_2                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                 
                   starting media recovery                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 25 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00025.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 26 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00026.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 27 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00027.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 28 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00028.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 29 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00029.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 30 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00030.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 31 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00031.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 32 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00032.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 33 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00033.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 34 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00034.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 35 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00035.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 36 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00036.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 37 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00037.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 38 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00038.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 39 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00039.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 40 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00040.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 41 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00041.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 42 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00042.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 43 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00043.001                                 
                   archive log thread 1 sequence 44 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00044.001                                 
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00025.001 thread=1 sequence=25                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00026.001 thread=1 sequence=26                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00027.001 thread=1 sequence=27                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00028.001 thread=1 sequence=28                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00029.001 thread=1 sequence=29                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00030.001 thread=1 sequence=30                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00031.001 thread=1 sequence=31                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00032.001 thread=1 sequence=32                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00033.001 thread=1 sequence=33                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00034.001 thread=1 sequence=34                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00035.001 thread=1 sequence=35                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00036.001 thread=1 sequence=36                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00037.001 thread=1 sequence=37                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00038.001 thread=1 sequence=38                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00039.001 thread=1 sequence=39                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00040.001 thread=1 sequence=40                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00041.001 thread=1 sequence=41                                                   
                   archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00042.001 thread=1 sequence=42                                                   
                   media recovery complete                                                                                                          
                   Finished recover at 30-JUN-07                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                 
                   RMAN> 
       
     2.2.1.7 情况3:丢失spfile,有设置自动备份
     2.2.1.8 步骤:a.startup nomount;
                   b.restore spfile from 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070629-00_CTL.RMN'
                   c.shutdown immediate;
                   d.startup;
     2.2.1.9 范例:sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.11)> shutdown abort                                                                           
                   ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                           
                   sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.11)>                                                                                          
                   sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.11)> exit                                                                                     
                   Disconnected from Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                         
                   With the Partitioning, OLAP and Oracle Data Mining options                                                           
                   JServer Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                               
                                                                                                                                  
                   C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>d:                                                                           
                                                                                                                                  
                   D:\>cd D:\oracle\ora92\database                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                  
                   D:\oracle\ora92\database>ls                                                                                          
                   INIToralocal.ORA       PWDoralocal.ORA        SPFILEORALOCAL.ORA     oradba.exe             sqlnet.log               
                   OraDim.Log             SNCFORALOCAL.ORA       archive                oralocalCORE.LOG       复件 INIToralocal.ORA    
                                                                                                                                  
                   D:\oracle\ora92\database>mv INIToralocal.ORA INIToralocal.ORA.bak                                                    
                                                                                                                                  
                   D:\oracle\ora92\database>mv SPFILEORALOCAL.ORA SPFILEORALOCAL.ORA.bak                                                
                                                                                                                                  
                   D:\oracle\ora92\database>ls                                                                                          
                   INIToralocal.ORA.bak    PWDoralocal.ORA         SPFILEORALOCAL.ORA.bak  oradba.exe              sqlnet.log           
                   OraDim.Log              SNCFORALOCAL.ORA        archive                 oralocalCORE.LOG        复件 INIToralocal.ORA
                                                                                                                                  
                   D:\oracle\ora92\database>                                                                                            
                   D:\oracle\ora92\database>rman target /                                                                               
                                                                                                                                  
                   Recovery Manager: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                     
                                                                                                                                  
                   Copyright (c) 1995, 2002, Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.                                                  
                                                                                                                                  
                   connected to target database (not started)                                                                           
                                                                                                                                  
                   RMAN> startup nomount;                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                  
                   startup failed: ORA-01078: failure in processing system parameters                                                   
                   LRM-00109: 无法打开参数文件 'D:\ORACLE\ORA92\DATABASE\INITORALOCAL.ORA'                                              
                                                                                                                                  
                   trying to start the Oracle instance without parameter files ...                                                      
                   Oracle instance started                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                  
                   Total System Global Area      97589952 bytes                                                                         
                                                                                                                                  
                   Fixed Size                      453312 bytes                                                                         
                   Variable Size                 46137344 bytes                                                                         
                   Database Buffers              50331648 bytes                                                                         
                   Redo Buffers                    667648 bytes                                                                         
                                                                                                                                  
                   RMAN> restore spfile from autobackup;                                                                                
                                                                                                                                  
                   Starting restore at 01-JUL-07                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                  
                   using target database controlfile instead of recovery catalog                                                        
                   allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1                                                                                        
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=9 devtype=DISK                                                                               
                   RMAN-00571: ===========================================================                                              
                   RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============                                              
                   RMAN-00571: ===========================================================                                              
                   RMAN-03002: failure of restore command at 07/01/2007 18:59:49                                                        
                   RMAN-06495: must explicitly specify DBID with SET DBID command                                                       
                                                                                                                                  
                   RMAN> restore spfile from 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070629-00_CTL.RMN';                              
                                                                                                                                  
                   Starting restore at 01-JUL-07                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                  
                   using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                                                             
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: autobackup found: D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070629-00_CTL.RMN                     
                   channel ORA_DISK_1: SPFILE restore from autobackup complete                                                          
                   Finished restore at 01-JUL-07                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                        
                   RMAN> shutdown immediate;                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                        
                   Oracle instance shut down                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                        
                   RMAN> startup;                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                        
                   connected to target database (not started)                                                                           
                   Oracle instance started                                                                                              
                   database mounted                                                                                                     
                   database opened                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                        
                   Total System Global Area     133765984 bytes                                                                         
                                                                                                                                        
                   Fixed Size                      453472 bytes                                                                         
                   Variable Size                 79691776 bytes                                                                         
                   Database Buffers              50331648 bytes                                                                         
                   Redo Buffers                   3289088 bytes                                                                         
                                                                                                                                        
                   RMAN>                                                                                                                
                   
                   
      2.2.1.9 情况4:丢失控制文件,有设置自动备份
     2.2.1.10 步骤:a.startup nomount;
                    b.restore controlfile from 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070629-00_CTL.RMN';
                    c.shutdown immediate;
                    d.startup mount;
                    e.recover database;
                    f.alter database open resetlogs;
     2.2.1.11 范例:sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.11)> shutdown abort                                                                                                      
                    ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                                       
                    sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.11)> exit                                                                                                 
                    Disconnected from Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                     
                    With the Partitioning, OLAP and Oracle Data Mining options                                                                       
                    JServer Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                     
                    D:\oracle\ora92\database>cd D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                     
                    D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                    
                    CONTROL01.CTL       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF
                    CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_RMAN_01.DBF               
                    CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_UNDO_01.DBF               
                    CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF               
                                                                                                                                                     
                    D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>mv *.CTL ../                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                     
                    D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                    
                    CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF               
                    DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF                    
                    EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_RMAN_01.DBF                                   
                    ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_UNDO_01.DBF                                   
                                                                                                                                                     
                    D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rman target /                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                     
                    Recovery Manager: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                     
                    Copyright (c) 1995, 2002, Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.                                                              
                                                                                                                                                     
                    connected to target database (not started)                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                     
                    RMAN> startup nomount;                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                     
                    Oracle instance started                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                     
                    Total System Global Area     133765984 bytes                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                    Fixed Size                      453472 bytes                                                                                     
                    Variable Size                 79691776 bytes                                                                                     
                    Database Buffers              50331648 bytes                                                                                     
                    Redo Buffers                   3289088 bytes                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                    RMAN> restore controlfile from 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070629-00_CTL.RMN';                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                    Starting restore at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                     
                    using target database controlfile instead of recovery catalog                                                                    
                    allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                    
                    channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=13 devtype=DISK                                                                                          
                    channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring controlfile                                                                                        
                    channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                             
                    replicating controlfile                                                                                                          
                    input filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CONTROL01.CTL                                                                          
                    output filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CONTROL02.CTL                                                                         
                    output filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CONTROL03.CTL                                                                         
                    Finished restore at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                                
                    RMAN> shutdown immediate;                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                     
                    Oracle instance shut down                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                     
                    RMAN> startup;                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                     
                    connected to target database (not started)                                                                                       
                    Oracle instance started                                                                                                          
                    database mounted                                                                                                                 
                    RMAN-00571: ===========================================================                                                          
                    RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============                                                          
                    RMAN-00571: ===========================================================                                                          
                    RMAN-03002: failure of startup command at 07/01/2007 19:38:21                                                                    
                    ORA-01589: must use RESETLOGS or NORESETLOGS option for database open                                                            
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                    RMAN> recover database;                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                     
                    Starting recover at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                    
                    allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                    
                    channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=13 devtype=DISK                                                                                          
                    datafile 9 not processed because file is read-only                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                     
                    starting media recovery                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                     
                    archive log thread 1 sequence 52 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO101.LOG                               
                    archive log thread 1 sequence 53 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO202.LOG                               
                    archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO101.LOG thread=1 sequence=52                                                 
                    archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\REDO202.LOG thread=1 sequence=53                                                 
                    media recovery complete                                                                                                          
                    Finished recover at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                    RMAN> alter database open resetlogs;                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                     
                    database opened                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                    RMAN>  
                    
                    
                    
                    
                    
                    
                    
                    
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                   
  2.2.2 不完全恢复 
   2.2.2.1 情况1:拥有全备,丢失所有数据文件和redolog,只剩下控制文件
   2.2.2.2 步骤:  
           run{    
           set until sequence XXX thread 1;
           restore database check readonly;               ----------------加上check readonly,将readonly表空间也还原。
           recover database check readonly;
           alter database open resetlogs;
           }       
   2.2.2.3 范例:sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.11)> shutdown abort                                                                                              
                 ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                                            
                 sys@ORALOCAL(10.1.19.11)> exit                                                                                                        
                 Disconnected from Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                          
                 With the Partitioning, OLAP and Oracle Data Mining options                                                                            
                 JServer Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                       
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                 CONTROL01.CTL       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF
                 CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF     
                 CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_RMAN_01.DBF                    
                 CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_UNDO_01.DBF                    
                                                                                                                                       
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rm *.DBF                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                       
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rm *.LOG                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                       
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                 CONTROL01.CTL  CONTROL02.CTL  CONTROL03.CTL                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                       
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rman target /                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                       
                 Recovery Manager: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                       
                 Copyright (c) 1995, 2002, Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.                                                                   
                                                                                                                                       
                 connected to target database (not started)                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                       
                 RMAN> startup nomount                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                       
                 Oracle instance started                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                       
                 Total System Global Area     133765984 bytes                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                       
                 Fixed Size                      453472 bytes                                                                                          
                 Variable Size                 79691776 bytes                                                                                          
                 Database Buffers              50331648 bytes                                                                                          
                 Redo Buffers                   3289088 bytes                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                       
                 RMAN>                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                       
                 RMAN> alter database mount;                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                       
                 using target database controlfile instead of recovery catalog                                                                         
                 database mounted                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                       
                 RMAN> run{                                                                                                                            
                 2> set until sequence 42 thread 1;                                                                                                    
                 3> restore database check readonly;                                                                                                   
                 4> recover database check readonly;                                                                                                   
                 5> }                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                       
                 executing command: SET until clause                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                       
                 Starting restore at 29-JUN-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                       
                 using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                              
                 using channel ORA_DISK_2                                                                                                              
                 skipping datafile 9; already restored to file D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_RMAN_01.DBF                                               
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00003                                                                                          
                 input datafilecopy recid=3 stamp=626487149 filename=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\CP_DF_3_070629.CPY                                      
                 destination for restore of datafile 00003: D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CWMLITE01.DBF                                                   
                 channel ORA_DISK_2: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                               
                 channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00001 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\SYSTEM01.DBF                                                                   
                 restoring datafile 00007 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\ODM01.DBF                                                                      
                 restoring datafile 00011 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\PERFSTAT.DBF                                                                   
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: copied datafilecopy of datafile 00003                                                                             
                 output filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CWMLITE01.DBF recid=16 stamp=626565189                                                     
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                               
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00002 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_01.DBF                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00004 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\DRSYS01.DBF                                                                    
                 restoring datafile 00006 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_02.DBF                                                                 
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                 piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_10IL6UT8_1_32.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                       
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                                  
                 channel ORA_DISK_2: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                 piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_0VIL6UT6_1_31.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                       
                 channel ORA_DISK_2: restore complete                                                                                                  
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                               
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00005 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\EXAMPLE01.DBF                                                                  
                 restoring datafile 00008 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_INDX_01.DBF                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00010 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\XDB01.DBF                                                                      
                 restoring datafile 00012 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_DATA_USER01.DBF                                                             
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                 piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_11IL6UTB_1_33.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                       
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                                  
                 Finished restore at 29-JUN-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                       
                 Starting recover at 29-JUN-07                                                                                                         
                 using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                              
                 using channel ORA_DISK_2                                                                                                              
                 datafile 9 not processed because file is read-only                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                       
                 starting media recovery                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                       
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 26 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00026.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 27 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00027.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 28 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00028.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 29 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00029.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 30 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00030.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 31 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00031.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 32 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00032.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 33 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00033.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 34 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00034.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 35 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00035.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 36 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00036.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 37 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00037.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 38 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00038.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 39 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00039.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 40 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00040.001                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 41 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00041.001                                      
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00025.001 thread=1 sequence=25                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00026.001 thread=1 sequence=26                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00027.001 thread=1 sequence=27                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00028.001 thread=1 sequence=28                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00029.001 thread=1 sequence=29                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00030.001 thread=1 sequence=30                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00031.001 thread=1 sequence=31                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00032.001 thread=1 sequence=32                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00033.001 thread=1 sequence=33                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00034.001 thread=1 sequence=34                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00035.001 thread=1 sequence=35                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00036.001 thread=1 sequence=36                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00037.001 thread=1 sequence=37                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00038.001 thread=1 sequence=38                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00039.001 thread=1 sequence=39                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00040.001 thread=1 sequence=40                                                        
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00041.001 thread=1 sequence=41                                                        
                 media recovery complete                                                                                                               
                 Finished recover at 29-JUN-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                       
                 RMAN> alter database open resetlogs;                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                       
                 database opened                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                       
                 RMAN>   
                                                                                                                                               

  2.2.2.4 情况2:拥有全备,设置自动备份。丢失所有数据文件、控制文件、redolog
          步骤:a.startup nomount;
                b.restore controlfile from 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070701-00_CTL.RMN';
                c.alter database mount;
                d.run{
                  set until scn XXXXXXX;
                  restore database check readonly;
                  recovre database check readonly;
                  }
                e.alter database open resetlogs;
           范例:sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.11)> shutdown abort                                                                                                 
                 ORACLE instance shut down.                                                                                                            
                 sys@ORALOCAL(192.168.0.11)> exit                                                                                                                                                                                             
                 Disconnected from Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                          
                 With the Partitioning, OLAP and Oracle Data Mining options                                                                            
                 JServer Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                      
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                 CONTROL01.CTL       DRSYS01.DBF         REDO0201.LOG        REDO101.LOG         REDO301.LOG         TS_DATA_USER01.DBF  TS_UNDO_02.DBF
                 CONTROL02.CTL       EXAMPLE01.DBF       REDO0202.LOG        REDO102.LOG         REDO302.LOG         TS_INDX_01.DBF      XDB01.DBF     
                 CONTROL03.CTL       ODM01.DBF           REDO0301.LOG        REDO201.LOG         SYSTEM01.DBF        TS_RMAN_01.DBF                    
                 CWMLITE01.DBF       PERFSTAT.DBF        REDO0302.LOG        REDO202.LOG         TEMP.DBF            TS_UNDO_01.DBF                    
                                                                                                                                      
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rm *                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                      
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>ls                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
                 D:\oracle\oradata\oralocal>rman target /                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                      
                 Recovery Manager: Release 9.2.0.1.0 - Production                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                 Copyright (c) 1995, 2002, Oracle Corporation.  All rights reserved.                                                                   
                                                                                                                                      
                 connected to target database (not started)                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                      
                 RMAN> startup nomount;                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                      
                 Oracle instance started                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                      
                 Total System Global Area     133765984 bytes                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                      
                 Fixed Size                      453472 bytes                                                                                          
                 Variable Size                 79691776 bytes                                                                                          
                 Database Buffers              50331648 bytes                                                                                          
                 Redo Buffers                   3289088 bytes                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                 RMAN> restore controlfile from 'D:\Back Up\db bak\RMAN_BK\C-3826047702-20070701-00_CTL.RMN';                                          
                                                                                                                                      
                 Starting restore at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
                 using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                              
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring controlfile                                                                                             
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                                  
                 replicating controlfile                                                                                                               
                 input filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CONTROL01.CTL                                                                               
                 output filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CONTROL02.CTL                                                                              
                 output filename=D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CONTROL03.CTL                                                                              
                 Finished restore at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
                 RMAN>                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                 RMAN> alter database mount;                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                      
                 database mounted                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                 RMAN> run{                                                                                                                            
                 2>  set until scn 1120851578647;                                                                                                      
                 3> restore database check readonly;                                                                                                   
                 4> recover database check readonly;}                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                      
                 executing command: SET until clause                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                      
                 Starting restore at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
                 using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                              
                 skipping datafile 9; already restored to file D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_RMAN_01.DBF                                               
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                               
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00001 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\SYSTEM01.DBF                                                                   
                 restoring datafile 00003 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\CWMLITE01.DBF                                                                  
                 restoring datafile 00007 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\ODM01.DBF                                                                      
                 restoring datafile 00011 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\PERFSTAT.DBF                                                                   
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                 piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_1SILP08J_1_60.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                       
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                                  
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                               
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00002 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_01.DBF                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00004 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\DRSYS01.DBF                                                                    
                 restoring datafile 00006 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_UNDO_02.DBF                                                                 
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                 piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_1TILP08K_1_61.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                       
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                                  
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backupset restore                                                                               
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00005 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\EXAMPLE01.DBF                                                                  
                 restoring datafile 00008 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_INDX_01.DBF                                                                 
                 restoring datafile 00010 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\XDB01.DBF                                                                      
                 restoring datafile 00012 to D:\ORACLE\ORADATA\ORALOCAL\TS_DATA_USER01.DBF                                                             
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1                                                                                           
                 piece handle=D:\BACK UP\DB BAK\RMAN_BK\DB_FULL_1UILP08N_1_62.RMN tag=DB_FULL_070628 params=NULL                                       
                 channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete                                                                                                  
                 Finished restore at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
                 Starting recover at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                         
                 using channel ORA_DISK_1                                                                                                              
                 datafile 9 not processed because file is read-only                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                      
                 starting media recovery                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                      
                 archive log thread 1 sequence 47 is already on disk as file D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00047.001                                      
                 archive log filename=D:\ORACLE\ARCH\ORALOCAL\ARC00047.001 thread=1 sequence=47                                                        
                 media recovery complete                                                                                                               
                 Finished recover at 01-JUL-07                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                      
                 RMAN> alter database open resetlogs;                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                      
                 database opened                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                      
                 RMAN>                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                      

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